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"Using bauxite residue as the raw material for construction products is one potential solution we are investigating for bauxite residue. Finding viable uses for this by-product is a challenge for our industry globally, but we aim to reduce and even eliminate the need to store new bauxite residue in the longer term."


In this process, bauxite residue is mixed with concentrated sulfuric acid, baked in a furnace at 200-400 °C, and leached in water at ambient conditions. Compared with direct acid leaching processes, the developed process offers the advantages of less acid consumption, less …


The bauxite residue sample was a very fine material, with 90 wt% of the material having a particle size of less than 10 μm. The main minerals observed in the bauxite residue were gibbsite, diaspore, hematite, calcite and cancrinite. The concentration of the rare-earth elements (REEs) in the studied bauxite residue was around 0.1 wt%. Water ...


FBRM has proved to be a very powerful tool for investigating and comparing the flocculation performance of process hydroxamate and polyacrylate flocculants with Bayer process bauxite residue slurry. The key difference in polyacrylate and hydroxamate flocculation is the way the aggregates develop post-shear, with hydroxamate aggregates ...


The main constituent of bauxite residue is iron oxide and it can make up to 45% of the mass of the bauxite residue. In fact, the red colour of bauxite residue is caused by iron (III) oxides (mostly haematite, Fe 2 O 3) ( 9 ). In general, due to its high alkaline (Na 2 O ≈ 10%) and its titanium (TiO 2 ≈ 4–15%) content, bauxite residue is ...


Bauxite residue is often referred as red mud due to the colour of the bauxite ore and iron oxides. Red mud is separated during the refining process. The production of 1 t of alumina generally ...


The investigation of the mixtures included pH measurement and their leaching with rain water and analysis for important elements. ... Iron recovery from the bauxite residue would be an alternative ...


The purpose of present work was to provide mineralogical insight into the rare earth element (REE) phases in bauxite residue to improve REE recovering technologies. Experimental work was performed by electron probe microanalysis with energy dispersive as well as wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. REEs are found as discrete mineral particles in bauxite residue.


BR06 - Investigating the Leaching, Desilication and Precipitation of Aluminium Tri-Hydroxides from a Bauxite Residue-Bauxite By-Product Slag James M. Mwase1 and Jafar Safarian2 . 1. Postdoctoral Researcher. 2. Associate Professor. Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway


extraction of iron compounds from calcined bauxite residue: an investigation on magnetic separation Robert, Y., Simard, G., Leclerc, A., Perrachon, L., Fortin, S., Fortin, L. The valorization of bauxite residue generated by the Bayer process is a key issue for the alumina industry, from both economic and environmental aspects.


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Red mud - Wikipedia

Red mud, formally termed bauxite residue, is an industrial waste generated during the processing of bauxite into alumina using the Bayer process.It is composed of various oxide compounds, including the iron oxides which give its red colour. Over 95% of the alumina produced globally is through the Bayer process; for every tonne of alumina produced, approximately 1 to 1.5 tonnes of red mud are ...


Samples and sample preparation. 2.1.1. Bauxite residues and bauxites. The major focus of this work was the comparison of different BRs and possible identification of differences in Sc occurrences in the respective samples. Investigations were performed on Greek (GRBR), German (GEBR), Hungarian (HUBR) and Russian (RUBR) bauxite residue samples.


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Investigation of Hydrological Behaviour of In Situ Bauxite Residue for Closure and Rehabilitation Design N. Amoah Worsley Alumina Pty Ltd, Australia J. Phillips GHD Pty Ltd, Australia S. Vlahos Worsley Alumina Pty Ltd, Australia 1 INTRODUCTION Over 20 million m³ of residue from the alumina refining industry are produced in Western Australia ...


management of bauxite residue by investigating perspectives of reducing the quantities of the by-product disposal. Through ongoing research and field trials, a range of significant improvements to re-use methods of the residue have been developed and implemented. Various domains of application have been investigated through pilot and


Investigating bauxite residue flocculation by hydroxamate and polyacrylate flocculants utilising the focussed beam reflectance measurement probe. ... Polyacrylate and hydroxamate flocculants are commonly used to aid solid–liquid separation of bauxite residue from pregnant liquor in the Bayer process. This study presents the direct examination ...


Investigation of bauxite residue (red mud) in terms of its environmental risk. Banu Ozden 1, Colin Brennan 2 & Sheldon Landsberger 2 Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry volume 319, pages 339–346 (2019)Cite this article


Opportunities for use of bauxite residue in special cements 2 International Aluminium Institute: ‐aluminium.org Current IAI membership represents over 60 % of global bauxite, alumina and aluminium production.


Bauxite residue (also called red mud) is a solid waste formed during the production of alumina in the Bayer process. It has been estimated that about 140-150 million tonnes of bauxite residue are generated every year and, approximately 4 billion tonnes of this material have been already stockpiled during the last decades.


strategies associated with the bauxite residue. 2. Mineralogy and Chemical Characteristics of Bauxite and RM. Bauxite ore is characterized by its high concentration of iron oxide and alumina, along with various other mineral and chemical structures. Alumina occurs in 3 principal phases, depending on the origin and type of the ore.


16 Scale of the problem • Alumina production in 2015 was 115 million t/y - 95% via Bayer process • Bauxite residue produced per tonne of alumina –range 0.5 to 4 t/t alumina • Annual arising –over 155 million tonnes and growing • Number of active alumina refineries –about 80 • Number of closed residue disposal sites –over 50 • All disposal in estuaries and the sea ceased at ...


Bauxite residue is a highly alkaline waste that is produced in the alumina manufacture. As of 2018, the global inventory of bauxite residue had reached 4.6 billion tons, and it is still growing at a rate of about 150–200 million tons annually (Tian et al. 2019; Xue et al. 2020; O'Connor and Courtney 2020; Ke et al. 2021).


The bauxite or aluminum industry continues to play an important role in the global economy. However, efforts are still needed in the sector in order to meet the objective of the millennium for sustainability. Serious environmental and health concerns are raised at every stage of the industry starting from the bauxite preliminary exploration to the mining activities as well as the alumina ...


Plasma Smelting process. The result obtained in the present investigation seems promising, and may be an option to minimize Bauxite Residue generation in Alumina Refineries. Further studies are needed to establish higher reduction efficiencies for the iron oxide present in bauxite. 7. Acknowledgement


For example, alumina output is the input to the aluminium smelter while bauxite residue output is the input to the recyclers. Techniques such as â in-situâ leaching, solution mining and biotechnologies will be investigated to achieve the above and pilot plant investigations among partners will be conducted.


Management of bauxite residue in a temperate climate using mud-farming techniques Willan and GS Ghataora 212 Paste 2015, Cairns, Australia both historical site investigations as well as a new site investigation devised for this study, and carried out


Investigation of Hydrological Behaviour of In Situ Bauxite Residue for Closure and Rehabilitation Design. ... At Worsley Alumina Refinery, the first Bauxite Residue Disposal Area (BRDA 1) was constructed in 1984. Residue deposition continued with the various stages of embankment raising. BRDA 1 reached the final design height in 1995.


12%The results of a laboratory investigation for the reduction of bauxite residue's permeability, when mixed with certain additives, are presented and discussed in the current work. Based on bauxite residue, nine mixtures were created using fly ash, bentonite, and cement, in 5, 10, and 15% by weight. According to the performed standard Proctor compaction tests and 1D …


1.2 Bauxite residue fl occulation Achieving rapid solid-liquid separation between digestion and precipitation is critical, given the super-saturated state of the liquors. A large number of studies have sought to identify the causes of poor solid-liquid separation performance from bauxite residue fl occulation. From these it is known that


The bauxite residue is thickened to a high-density slurry using an advanced thickener, flocculation, and dewatering filtration technologies. The thickened red mud slurry is pumped via pipeline to the storage area and spread in layers, allowing it to de-water through a combination of drainage and evaporative drying.


The results of a laboratory investigation for the reduction of bauxite residue's permeability, when mixed with certain additives, are presented and discussed in the current work.


This paper focuses on the scandium speciation in bauxite residues of different origin. Insights into mineralchemical similarities and differences of these materials will be presented and links to their natural geological background discussed. The presented research should provide fundamental knowledge for the future development of efficient and viable technologies for Sc-recovery from bauxite ...


Bauxite residue is a by-product of the Bayer Process. It is primarily composed of the insoluble fraction of the bauxite ore that remains after extraction of the aluminium-containing components. Iron oxides (10 – 30%), titanium dioxide (2 – 15%), silicon oxide (5 – 20%) and undissolved alumina (0 – 20%) make up the residue, together with ...


Bauxite Residue is a caustic spinoff of the Bayer manner of bauxite refining to supply alumina. The predominant chemical elements of pink mud are Fe 2 O 3, Al 2 O 3, TiO 2, SiO 2, and Na 2 O. Iron oxide is the only which offers it a darkish red color that's why it's also known as crimson dust. No flowers can live on Bauxite Residue disposed ...